The competitive equilibrium between deciduous and perennial species in a new scenario of climate change may depend closely on the productivity of leaves along the different seasons of the year and on the morphological and chemical adaptations required for leaf survival during the different seasons.
In the Mediterranean climate, plants have evolved under conditions of low soil-water and nutrient availabilities and have acquired a series of adaptive traits that, in turn exert strong feedback on soil fertility, structure, and protection.
Pinus pinaster Ait. is found in the Iberian Peninsula under Mediterranean and Atlantic conditions. Both climates encounter each other in Galicia (NW Spain), where two bioclimatic regions can be differentiated: coastal and inland.
Many regions in Europe are vulnerable to climate change impacts and these have already been observed in many human and natural systems. There is therefore a need for all European countries to adapt to climate change.
Many of the decisions relating to future urban development require information on climate change risks to cities This review of the academic and “grey” literature provides an overview assessment of the state of the art in the quantification and valuation of climate risks at the city-scale.
Mediterranean countries have started implementing adaptation to climate change for a decade. This chapter aims to draw a panorama of this current adaptation effort in contrasted contexts of action – typically developed and developing countries.
Este Informe Especial (SREX) analiza las dimensiones sociales y físicas de los desastres meteorológicos y los relacionados con el clima, teniendo en cuenta las oportunidades para la gestión de riesgos desde nivel local hasta escalas internacionales.