A large restoration project started in 2011 in the former saltworks of Salin-de Giraud, located in the southeast of the Rhône delta, within the Camargue Regional Natural Park and the UNESCO‘s Man and Biosphere Reserve. This site represents a vast coastal area of 6,500 ha in the municipalities of Arles and Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, partially transformed and used for industrial salt production from 1950 to 2008. It was characterised by a strong artificialisation, with seafront dykes and disconnection among different water bodies used as ponds for salt extraction.
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Fire is the most significant natural threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean basin. The average annual number of forest fires in the Mediterranean basin, particularly in southern Europe, is close to 50,000 - twice as many as during the 1970s. The natural plant ecosystem of the Mediterranean basin is rich in shrubs and coniferous forests and, thus, particularly susceptible to fire. Meanwhile, summer periods are now warmer, drier and longer and projected changes in the climate suggest increases in the frequency and severity of forest fires.
AgriAdapt project, more than 120 pilot farms are testing sustainable adaptation measures to enhance the farm resilience to climate change, reduce GHGs emissions and improve the farm competitiveness.
Climate change will have an adverse impact on many economic sectors (such as energy, food, construction, tourism, insurance). In the banking sector, it is acknowledged that risks faced by clients also create risks for banks. Risk management activities should therefore aim at the management of risk for the benefit of the clients, the financial institutions and the business community alike. Climabiz was an innovative LIFE project aimed to quantify risks and opportunities for Greek enterprises deriving from climate change.
Lisbon is located in Southern Europe, a region that is generally identified as one to be likely affected by droughts if current climate change scenarios do occur. Over the last 40 years, Lisbon geographic area has witnessed an increase in the rainfall variability. Projections up to the end of the century agree that these trends will intensify. Leakage reduction at the distribution network arises as one of the most significant adaptation measures to be implemented.
Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality and morbidity is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. The elderly are particular vulnerable to extreme heat stress. Being part of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal has a mild Mediterranean climate. Climate change projections indicate that the number of days with extreme heat in Portugal will increase with urban areas being more sensitive.
Herdade do Freixo do Meio is an organic certified farm of 440 hectares located in the Alentejo region in the south of Portugal, a region characterized by the multifunctional agro-silvo-pastoral system of cork and holm oak trees, named montado. This farm employs about 20 people and produces cork, vegetables, fruit, wine and herbs, and holds animals (such as sheep, cows, pig, turkey and chicken) extensively.
The Segura River Basin in the south east of Spain suffers from a structural condition of water scarcity and drought occurrence. For decades, the focus for dealing with this condition has been placed on instrumental objectives such as increasing water transfer facilities (i.e. Tagus Segura Water Transfer, a major diversion project), developing alternative sources (i.e. desalination and reuse) or making use of water in a more technically efficient way (i.e. irrigation modernization).
As a Mediterranean coastal city, Barcelona is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Its high population density also magnifies the local heat island effect which causes an array of health and environmental challenges. Climate change projections include a rise in average temperature and a significant decrease in rainfall, with expected lasting droughts and intense heat waves. In response, Barcelona has committed to becoming a global model of a sustainable city combating urban development challenges related to climate change and population density.
The Zaragoza Water Saving City programme was initiated in 1996 in response to water scarcity. It included awareness raising campaigns, the implementation of examples of good practice and voluntary public commitments by citizens and businesses. The water tariffs were revised to provide disincentives and incentives that ensure a full cost recovery whilst maintaining affordability for low income households. The programme also involved improvements to the water distribution infrastructure to reduce the waste of water.