Climate change impact assessment has been an integrated part of the design and planning of the Copenhagen metro since the first metro line was designed in the mid-1990s. For this scope, Metroselskabet, the Copenhagen metro company, developed a climate change adaptation strategy, which supports the integration of adaptation aspects since the planning and dimensioning phase of the metro system. Apart from the first metro line, opened in 2002, and related extensions in following years, in 2019 Metroselskabet put into operation a new city circle line (Cityringen line M3/M4).
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Hesketh Out Marsh is one of the biggest managed realignment projects in the UK and is one of the country’s most important estuary habitats for birdlife. The original saltmarsh was isolated from the estuary in 1980 by the creation of an outer wall, and was used for growing crops. With the sea level rising, it was necessary to create stronger sea defences. By a process known as “managed realignment”, seawater has been let back in to flood the land, re-creating saltmarsh and providing space for nature.
The county of Sogn og Fjordane frequently experiences avalanches and landslides, storm surges and flooding. Due to climate change and related impacts on extreme weather events above hazards are expected to be exacerbated; more extensive adaptation strategies and measures are therefore needed.